With regard to the United States, the Council of the EU has approved negotiating mandates for an agreement on the abolition of tariffs on industrial products and mutual recognition of the assessment of compliance with the United States. Other measures have yet to be decided. Trade agreements are likely to result in job losses in some sectors due to increasing competition, but these agreements are creating more and more jobs than they are destroying. Another concern is that they could lead to high quality standards for products such as food, which are diluted. However, given that the EU is such a large market, it is well placed to impose its standards on foreign companies. The EU recently published a detailed review of « the impact of EU trade agreements on the agricultural sector. » The document is published, in its own words, in a context of growing protectionism within the EU and its main trading partners. With an in-depth review of some of the EU`s key free trade agreements, the report aims to support the debate on the pros and cons of trade liberalization. Suzuki H (2017) The new trade policy: EU-Japan. J Eur Integr 39 (7): 827-841 Last point, the Commission realistically assesses the benefits and limits of free trade agreements when it asks the following question: « The central question of this study is: Does creating trade agreements or the EU only conclude agreements where trade develops anyway? » Mucci A, Cerulus L and Burchard H (2016) The fight for data is proving to be the last major obstacle to the EU-Japan trade agreement. Politico, December 8. Available at www.politico.eu/article/eu-japan-trade-deal-caught-up-in-data-flow-row-cecilia-malmstrom/.

Appeal on 15 January 2018 Young AR, Peterson J (2006) Eu and the new trade policy. J Eur Public Policy 13 (6):795-814 The EU has several types of agreements with countries. They can focus on removing or removing customs barriers or creating a customs union by removing tariffs and establishing a common tariff for foreign imports. An agreement would avoid tariffs, free up additional benefits, cooperate in the EU and UK customs area, ensure the sustainable implementation of the Northern Ireland Protocol and provide a platform on which deeper relations can be established in the future. Nelson P (2018) At the head of current and future trade relations. In: Berkofsky A et al (eds) The EU-Japan partnership in the shadow of China: the crisis of liberalism. Routledge, London, 118-149 1. Duty-free and quota-free exchangeThe EU-UK free trade agreement will continue to create new non-tariff regulatory barriers. But the fact that it can remove all tariffs and quotas (as long as the products comply with the rules of origin) is not to be sniffed.